VALUE Validation Indices and Performance Measures
The following list presents different classes of validation indices. For each meteorological variable, the specific values used to describe the indices (e.g. thresholds) are chosen based on expert knowledge (e.g., impact researchers, STARDEX report, etc.). This list will be updated on a regular basis.
mpe: mean percentage error
mse: mean squared error
Index 
Performance Measure 


Distributionwise Validation 
Pairwise Validation 
Marginal Distribution 

Mean 
bias/mpe 

Variance 
mpe 

Skewness 
bias 

Temporal Dependence 

time series 

mse 
acf lag 1,2,3 
just indices 

quantiles/return values 
bias 

threshold exceedance 

Brier score/mse of 0/1 series 
number of threshold exceedances 
bias 

amount above threshold 
bias 

shape parameter of GEV 
bias 

time of maximum/minimum of annual cycle 
bias 

amplitude of annual cycle 
mpe 

spell length dist quants 
bias 

transition probabilities 
just indices 

proportion of variance in low frequency band 
just indices 

sign of the low pass filtered series 

Brier score/mse of 0/1 series 
Spatial Dependence 

distribution of daily relative areas of threshold exceedances 
see above 
mse 
range of smoothed variogram 
mpe 

madogram 
mpe 

Multivariate Dependence 

corr(detrended variables) 
just indices 

variable conditional on (no) exceedance 
see above 

joint exceedances 
see above 

Spatial Climatological Summaries 

all indices 
mean absolute error, mean bias 

absolute errors of spatial means 


mpe of spatial means 


means of Brier scores 


Taylor diagram 
